A review on comparative morphology of avian oral cavity
Author(s): J Violet Beaulah, P Sridevi, Geetha Ramesh and TA Kannan
Abstract: The anatomy of the avian oropharyngeal cavity is crucial in considering the structural variances. In Turkey and Japanese quail, the mouth and pharyngeal cavity was not well demarcated. In duck and goose the fusion of bony plate of upper beak with the nasal and premaxillary bone is movable. Palatine bones are in the form of bony plates noticed in goose and duck whereas rod- shaped in fowl and pigeon and are extend parallel to one another and articulate with the maxilla anteriorly and pterygoid posteriorly. Vomer bone is a thin, unpaired bony plate in duck and goose whereas it is rudimentary in fowl and pigeon. Quardate bone is noticed in between the neurocranium and the maxillopalatine apparatus. Mandibular joint is formed by the articular surface of the mandibular bone also has a large foramen pneumaticum in the duck and goose. In duck and geese, supra-angular bone is in the form of a prominent muscular ridge. In duck and goose branches of the mandibular nerve exit by many numerous prominent openings and are situated on the mandibular rami both on the internal and external surfaces arranged in rows mainly in the oral region. The horizontal movement of the upper beak quadrate bones is by the medially placed pterygoid, palatine bones and zygomatic bones and the movement is at its base in the craniofacial hinge helps in the movement of the upper beak at its vertical direction along with the movement of the lower beak, this movement helps in food uptake. Hyoid bone is slender in the fowl and pigeon whereas it is flattened in the duck and goose.