Bone fracture is a complete or partial breakage of the bone structure. Fracture repair is considered a regenerative process whereby healing occurs through the formation of new bone tissue indiscernible from uninjured bone. Fracture repair is the process of reducing and realigning fractured bone ends together in other to achieve healing. Caffeine, or 1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, is an alkaloid present in more than one hundred plant species. It is used as stimulants and it affects calcium mobilization in the body. It may predispose to fracture.
Methodology; a total of 30 rats procured from a known breeder (University of Maiduguri quarters) and acclimatized for 14 days and divided into 2 group A (15 rats), and group B (15 rats). Group A were administered caffeine orally at 500 mg/kg while group B were given placebo which served as control. Samples from fractured tibiae were harvested on day 14, 28, and 42 respectively. The samples were decalcified using formic acid and stained with H and E (Hematoxylin and Eosin) and viewed under microscope at X10, X40 and X100 magnifications. The results showed no significant difference between the treated and the control group on day 14. However, we observed histological difference on day 28 and 42 even though there was no statistical difference using student’s t test. (p>0.05) between the caffeine treated group and the control group.
The finding shows that caffeine intake at 5mg/kg for more than 14 days and above post fracture may delay fracture repair.