Foot-and-mouth disease in Cameroon: A systematic review to support its progressive control
Author(s): Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Aubin Armel Koumba, Mintsa Nguema Rodrigue and Jacques Francois Mavoungou
Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral transboundary disease of even-toed animals, caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The objective of this paper is to provide reviewed data on the epidemiology, risks, control and the existing gaps on FMD in Cameroon from 1990 to 2021 to support its progressive control. Relevant and available documents (n=45) on FMD in Cameroon such as peer-reviewed papers (n=27), dissertations (n=11), conferences (n=5) and technical reports (n=2) were used. Studies on the molecular and serological epidemiology, the role of carrier/mobile animals, the evaluation of immune-cross protection between serotypes and the quantification of serotype-specific transmission parameters using mathematical models have been discussed. The environmental drivers of FMD in cattle markets, abattoir and herd-level, as well as risk factors such as husbandry practices, communal grazing, regional/international livestock trading system, transhumance and fomites, are presented. As international borders remain porous with poor FMD monitoring infrastructure at veterinary checkpoints in a country with no candidate vaccine, vaccination program and commercial vaccines available, farmers are left with no option other than to manage the disease with traditional formulations and veterinary pharmaceuticals mostly antibiotics. Tri-Solfen® (TS), a wound dressing formulation was efficient in managing FMD in Cameroon. The current gaps in FMD knowledge in Cameroon are presented. There is a need for a comprehensive epidemiological study in the major cattle rearing regions of Cameroon. A regional study to identify all the risk factors for the transmission of FMD is required. A socio-economic impact study of FMD is required in Cameroon.