Morphological comparison of proventricular and gizzard in starling birds Sturnus vulgaris and pigeon Columba livia
Author(s): Suhaib AH AL-Taai
Abstract: The current study aimed to investigate the stomach of two species of starling Sturnus vulgaris and pigeons Columba livia. The experiment included 10 birds, it is distributed in two equal groups. The ages of birds were on average range 6-9 months (adult age). The observation has appeared the stomach in both the species, is divided into 2 chambers. The results showed the first stomach is called proventriculus. It's characterized as elongated in shape and expansion of the esophagus, located forward the gizzard to posterior at the esophagus in both species. Our study included some gross findings that differentiate into two kinds. However, the proventriculus in starling S. vulgaris was characterized as cylindrical-like and had gastric papillae, which it's appeared from an external surface of the proventriculus with a long isthmus. Whereas our results in pigeon C. livia, the glandular stomach was tubular in shape and no protrudes of gastric papillae during the outer wall of it with the short isthmus. Either gizzard was spherical in the shape of starling and fusiform-like in pigeons, but it was a thin muscular wall and clear at fatty tissue with pale color comparatively with pigeon because the starling birds were represented at omnivores depend on the nutrition added to the grains. In the pigeons, the gizzard had an amount of adipose tissue it's covered most of the external wall of it. The situation of gizzard in pigeon was situated posterior toward the proventriculus and had a thick muscular wall with dark-red in color according to nature of the diet, facilities of the grinding grain for indigestion, therefore the pigeons were considered from granivorous. Also, the study included anatomical statics measurements, length, weight, and volume in addition to weights of the birds. Where the study recorded no significant data mean between species of birds proventriculus and gizzard (table 1).